The structures that enable the communication of objects with each other are called the Internet of Things (IoT) . The Internet of Things is expected to open up numerous economic opportunities and is considered one of the most promising technologies with great destructive potential .
The concept of the Internet of Things was created by a British entrepreneur Kevin Ashton. The idea was formulated in 1999 to describe a system where the material world communicates with computers (data exchange) with ubiquitous sensors. In this approach, not only objects, but also processes, data, people, and even animals or atmospheric phenomena – are treated as a variable, creating a system of everything .
In the first decade of the 21st century, the term “internet of things” became popular and it was considered as a technology that enables industries to move from Industry 3.0 to Industry 4.0 by adding information to products and processes in the supply chain [9, 16]. Technically speaking, IoT is a collection of physical artifacts that includes embedded systems of electrical, mechanical, computer, and communication mechanisms that enable internet-based communication and data exchange.
IoT is an abstract idea that captures a movement that started when we started integrating computing and communication technology into many of the “things” we use at home and in our workplace. It started with the idea of labeling and tracking “objects” with low-cost sensor technologies such as radio frequency identification (RFID) devices. However, the paradigm has changed as the market started offering low-cost computing and internet-based communication technologies with the rise of the ubiquitous smartphone. A perfect storm of low cost computing and pervasive broadband network has allowed IoT to evolve. Some examples of industrial IoT as shown in Figure 3; It includes a wide range of devices such as sensors, actuators, robots, milling machines, 3D printers and assembly line components, chemical mixing tanks, motors, insulin and infusion pumps, health devices, even planes, trains and automobiles .
Figure 3. Internet of Things (15]
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